RiversThe Orinoco River begins in the southern arm of Venezuela, and then flows north along the border between Venezuela and Columbia, picking up a number of tributaries along the way. At the city of Puerto Carreño, the Orinoco and Meta rivers collide and the Orinoco continues northeast, following the edge of the Guiana Highlands towards the coast. Before the Orinoco River reaches the coast, it turns into a delta and swamp-land, until it finally reaches the Atlantic Ocean (right near Trinidad and Tobago).
MountainsThe Tumuc Humac mountain range runs east and west along the southern borders of Suriname and French Guiana and a northern edge of Brazil.
Site and SituationSouth America is situated in the south-western hemisphere, and reaches from 10 degrees north to 55 degrees south (almost to Antarctica!) To the west is the Pacific Ocean and to the East the Pacific. The northern edge of the continent touches the Caribbean, but then juts out into the Atlantic Ocean. South America is fairly isolated from the other Continents, having large swaths of ocean between it and the rest of the world. Despite this, South America became a popular destination for European settlers, and you can find little European-style villages along the eastern coast of the continent.
South America is a large landmass separating the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Along the western edge is the longest mountain range in the world, the Andes. The northern edge of South America is well populated and covered in forests, grasslands and moderate mountain ranges. To the south is the Amazon River Basin, the largest drainage system in the world. This area is covered with vast tropical rainforests and is characterized by extreme wetness. To the east of the river basin lies another highland area, in Brazil. This area is covered in grasslands and open forests. The coast along this region is also well populated. On the western edge, the land is characterized by a sparsely inhabited desert coast and moderately inhabited, but still dry, coastal range and plateaus merging with the heights of the Andes. Once we reach about 30 degrees south, the wind changes direction and the western coast becomes very wet and covered in temperate forests while the eastern plains (on the other side of the ever-[resent Andes) are covered in grasslands. When we finally reach the tip of South America, the climate becomes pretty chilly and the highs in the summer can reach all the way up to 50 degrees F.
BonusDescribe a migration that has occurred in South America any time in history.
One migration that I find fascinating is the creation of the city of Brasília, Brazil. It was conceived of in the early 1800s, but not actually built until the 1950s. The city has since grown to about 2 million plus, although the original planners originally planned for only 500,000 inhabitants by the year 2000. A large portion of these "extra" immigrants are the workers who built the city, but then had no way to return home once the city had been completed. The city responded to this dilemma by building satellite cities around the new capital for these workers to settle in. More immigrants were attracted by the promise of new jobs in manufacturing and the service industry. Although Brasília was originally designed to integrate the classes, the large influx of new residents created class segregation anyhow with the poorer residents being segregated to the outer area of the city and the elite living closer to the center. One interesting thing that happened was that because the people of Brasília were from all parts of Brazil, their cultures meshed and merged, creating new Brazilian traditions and stories that are a blend of the people who migrated there.